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most powerful hiv- attacking antibody yet has been constructed

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most powerful hiv- attacking antibody yet has been constructed

a newly developed hiv antibody neutralizes 99 percent of virus strains, making it the most powerful yet found, according to a study led by duke university scientists.

the broadly neutralizing antibody provides a base for an hiv the y to destroy a wide range of viruses in infected people, said  duke researcher barton f. haynes. it also provides insights into building an effective vaccine to prevent hiv infection.

the study was published friday in science immunology. when published, it can be found at j.mp/99hiv. haynes was senior author. la tonya d. williams, also of duke, was first author.

the team constructed the hybrid or chimeric antibody from pieces of two naturally occurring antibodies, haynes said in a video interview supplied by duke.

one antibody was found in a patient who made an antibody that neutralized an unusually broad range of hiv. such broadly neutralizing antibodies collected from those with hiv have been studied for many years for clues about how the immune system makes them.

researchers at federally funded centers at duke and the scripps research institute in la jolla are using broadly neutralizing antibodies to guide work on an hiv vaccine.

a major problem in working with these broadly neutralizing antibodies is that they represent years of development in the immune system, by which time the virus is firmly established. components called b cells mutate their antibody-making genes, chancing on these powerful antibodies through trial and error.

to use broadly neutralizing antibodies for a vaccine, it’s necessary to work backward to deduce the steps needed to go from the original, less effective, antibodies to these highly modified and potent antibodies. scientists now think more than one vaccination will be needed to coach the immune system down the path toward broadly neutralizing antibodies.

“we were able to isolate so many antibodies from this one individual that we were able to computationally backtrack and see where the antibodies e from, and what the pathway of development was,” haynes said in the video interview. “that's something the field has not had yet with this particular type of extremely broad neutralizing antibody.”

the other antibody, related to the first, was pulled out of the blood plasma. both are variants of an antibody called dh511.

“and we showed that they were derived from the same cell and that they had same kind of breadth, and neutralized a lot of different viruses, and were similarly potent,” haynes said. “and this is the first time that's been done for broadly neutralizing antibodies.”

the team then swapped out parts of the two antibodies to construct various chimeric antibodies, until they found one that was more powerful than any other antibody.

“and that antibody has now become a candidate for use in treatment,” haynes said.

ocean temperatures warming at id rate, study finds
captionocean temperatures warming at id rate, study finds

researchers analyzed data on sea surface temperature records during the last interglacial period, which took place some 129,000 to 116,000 years ago. (jan. 20, 2017)

researchers analyzed data on sea surface temperature records during the last interglacial period, which took place some 129,000 to 116,000 years ago. (jan. 20, 2017)

ocean temperatures warming at id rate, study finds
captionocean temperatures warming at id rate, study finds

researchers analyzed data on sea surface temperature records during the last interglacial period, which took place some 129,000 to 116,000 years ago. (jan. 20, 2017)

researchers analyzed data on sea surface temperature records during the last interglacial period, which took place some 129,000 to 116,000 years ago. (jan. 20, 2017)

california has the snow. it just needs to keep it frozen
captioncalifornia has the snow. it just needs to keep it frozen

the coldness of storms can make the difference between one that adds to the fast-rising snowpack — an essential source of water for the state.

the coldness of storms can make the difference between one that adds to the fast-rising snowpack — an essential source of water for the state.

why california needs colder storms
captionwhy california needs colder storms

colder storms add to the fast-rising snowpack, an essential source of water for california. (jan. 19, 2017)

colder storms add to the fast-rising snowpack, an essential source of water for california. (jan. 19, 2017)

2016 was earth's third consecutive test year on record
caption2016 was earth's third consecutive test year on record

according to independent analyses by nasa and the national oceanic and atmospheric administration, the 1.78-degree jump over the mid-20th-century average marks the third year in a row that global temperatures have reached record-shattering levels.

according to independent analyses by nasa and the national oceanic and atmospheric administration, the 1.78-degree jump over the mid-20th-century average marks the third year in a row that global temperatures have reached record-shattering levels.

newly discovered soil microbes may have helped eat methane after porter ranch natural gas leak
captionnewly discovered soil microbes may have helped eat methane after porter ranch natural gas leak

the discovery, described at an american geophysical union meeting in san francisco, is prompting researchers to reconsider these gas-eating critters.

the discovery, described at an american geophysical union meeting in san francisco, is prompting researchers to reconsider these gas-eating critters.

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